In 1558, when Francis Stankar came here to work on its new program, the school was already in operation.

In 1558, when Francis Stankar came here to work on its new program, the school was already in operation.

The Czechoslovak fraternity school in Leszno, founded by Jakub Ostrorog in 1553, was very popular and can be considered one of the first educational centers of the Polish-Lithuanian state in the 16th century. Along with the Czech brothers, Calvinists and Catholics, Germans and Hungarians, Poles and Ruthenians studied there; among her students in the early 17th century. there were nobles from Przemyśl, townspeople from Lviv, merchant children from Belz.

In 1626, the new ruler of the city, Rafal Leszczynski, transferred the school to the level of higher education, personally drawing up its program according to the Western European model. Among the rectors of the institution in the first half of the XVII century. The writer and scientist Jan Rybinsky, the thinker and pedagogue Jan Amos Comenius stand out, among the teachers are the historian and theologian Andriy Vengersky, the mathematician, the architect, the writer Jan Dekan, the scientists Martin Cruzius, Jan Kirilus, Jan Laubman, and Jan Borovich and Jan Borovich.

An extremely famous teacher was also Jan Jonston (1603-1675), a member of the Czech fraternity, a member of the family of a Scottish emigrant, philosopher and naturalist, author of the world-famous scientific work „Consistency of Nature“. In addition to the children of the nobility, the children of the burghers studied at the school, and twelve of the best students from poor families were kept free of charge. The girls also studied here. One of the graduates, Anna Memorata, who knew Polish, Latin, German and Greek, became the author of Latin poetry.

A model for educational institutions in Western Ukraine in the second half of the XVI century. there was a school in Pinchuva, founded in 1552 by Mykola Olesnytsky with the participation of Frantsysk Stankar. Its first rector was Hryhoriy Orshak, one of the translators of the Radziwill Bible, and its teachers were Petro Statory and Ivan from Baturyn. In 1560 it passed to the Socinians, and from 1586, after the death of the patron, it was taken away by Catholics.

The school taught reading, writing and catechism in Polish, Latin grammar and independent translation from Latin texts of Virgil, Homer, Justin and the Latin „Catechism“ by Jean Calvin. Students also studied dialectics, rhetoric based on the works of Cicero. The Greek language was taught according to the grammars and works of Xenophon, Lucian, and Demosthenes, as well as according to the Greek catechism published by Robert Stephen.

The mastery of the skill of preaching and conducting the rite occupied a prominent place in the curriculum. Reformed schools „gave much higher intellectual development than the Catholic schools of the time, of which there were few.“

There were also many Calvinist institutions in the Ukrainian lands. The first of them is a school in Lancut, opened in 1550 (26 years before the Ostroh school, known as the academy). It was founded by the ruler of the town Hrystofor Piletsky, who together with S. Stadnytsky, S. Drohoyevsky and M. Zhytny belonged to the pioneers of the Protestant movement in Galicia. Initially, the institution was of a lower degree (two or three classes), but in 1578, under the son of the ruler Stanislav, it moved to a higher one. During this period, Andriy Perstein became the rector of the school. The institution in Lancut existed until 1629, when the town passed into the possession of the Catholic Stanislav Lubomyretsky.

The great Calvinist school was opened by Stanislav Stadnytsky in Dubetsk in Galicia. The date of its foundation is unknown, but as early as 1560 there were 300 noble children and five teachers.

According to S. Tvorek, the opening of the school can be attributed to 15546. In 1558, when Francis Stankar came here to work on its new program, the school was already in operation. The arrival of the Italian humanist and a group of like-minded people, including graduates of the Pinchuva training center and its former rector Hryhoriy Orshak, raised the school’s scientific level. Young people came here not only from Galicia, but also from all over Lesser Poland.

With the teachers of the school, first of all its rector Orshak (already known at that time a writer and scientist, expert in Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages, graduate and associate professor of the University of Kraków, author of the post, Polish translation Roksolan (who, by the way, sent his son to study at this school).

Among the graduates of the Dubets institution was a well-known philosopher-Aristotelian, buy compare contrast essay a native of Lviv Christopher Pshehadko (nicknamed Paripatetic). However, the school did not last long. After the transition of Hryhoriy Orshak to the anti-Trinitarian party, the escalation of disputes in the Calvinist milieu and the death of the patron, it closed.

In Panivtsi (in Podillia, in the town of the Bratslav voivode Jan Potocki) a Calvinist school (also known as an academy) was founded in 1590, which lasted until 1611. At the beginning of the 17th century. its rector was Balthazar Pankratius Palyatin, the vice-rector was Jan Mayus, and the teachers were Jacob Militius and Samuel Pelzel.

The list of subjects (which, in addition to the seven free sciences, also philosophy, theology and law) testifies to the highest level of school. There was a kind of specialization in it: students who prepared themselves for church service, after the catechetical class, switched to theological class; those who sought to continue their education abroad studied mainly in the classes of philosophy and law7. Before moving to Lithuania, Andriy Dobryansky and Jan Zigrovsky worked at the school.

At the beginning of the XVII century. the school already functioned as a cultural and educational center. A printing house was opened next to it, which produced anti-Catholic pamphlets. A center of writers was established, which included Petro Lazarovych from Verushov, a deacon of the local assembly, a preacher Jan Kszykawski, a student of the school Luka Vandlowski (brother of Andriy Dobriansky), who worked here on the translation of the Epistles of the Apostles.

In 1611 the Calvinist school in Krasnobrod was closed (first – the property of the Leszczynski family, then Jan Potocki, after whose death his son Stanislav arranged a stable on the site).

How many years the school existed is unknown, but probably for a long time, because the names of a whole group of rectors have been preserved: first of all, the famous one in the 16th century. philologist, connoisseur of Cicero and Greek Matthew Beloblotsky, as well as Francis Parul, Jacob Milius, Christopher Jakubes, Melchior Rossig.

The rector of the Krasnobrod institution was also Stanislav Zayanchkovych (or Zayanchkovsky, son of Ivan, rector of the school in Verushov), who was educated in Toruń, then abroad (traveling in Germany and Holland with Mykola Dobryansky, Andriy’s brother). In the 1950s, Zayanchkovych became a pastor in Lishchyny, Zhytomyr County.

By the beginning of the XVII century. there was a school in Turobin, founded by Andriy Gurka (its guardians were well-known Protestant figures Jan Kozminchyk and Stanislav Gurka). The first rector of the school was Valentin Goslitz, a doctor of medicine, who was succeeded in 1580 by Wojciech of Kalisz (or Kalisz), who had just returned from studies in Strasbourg.

Although the Catholic Jan Tamoysky became the ruler of Turobin in 1588, the school remained Protestant for some time. Its last rector was Stanislav Petritsiy of Verushov, a connoisseur of ancient Roman literature and Latin, and a translator of the works of Cato the Elder. In 1599 Petrits moved to Kotsk, where there was also a Calvinist school.

Since then, in fact, we have not found information about the rectors or teachers of the Turobin institution. As for the school in Kotsk, which was founded by Andriy Firley, a castellan from Radom, the most famous among its teachers are the historian Daniel Neugeban, Wojciech Pilcem, Samuel Liborzen, Martin Krupalin, and Stefan Svetlitsky8.

In 1593 a school was opened in Krylov (Pobuzhye), in the private town of Mykola Ostrorog, who then returned from Europe, where he studied in Wittenberg and Strasbourg (he was a student of the German humanist, the famous scientist-teacher I. Sturm), then in France. Italy. In Altdorf, the Netherlands, he served as rector of the university for a year.

During his rectorship, a group of students from Małopolska studied there, including his Czech brother Jan Jonas, one of the rectors of a Calvinist school in Vilnius. The program of the educational institution in Krylov, developed by Ostrorog, was built on the advanced European principles and provided a five-grade course of study.

The first rector of the school (it was also sometimes called an academy) was Matviy Beloblotsky, then (in 1597, and after a break in 1602-1603) Balthazar Kroznevytsky, a well-known Calvinist educator, a writer, a scholar, and a scientist. universities, receiving the title of Doctor of Theology, Professor of Law; author of several fundamental works on philosophy).

In 1609, Jan Muzonij, the former rector of the Czech-Brotherhood Lesnivska School, was elected rector of the school. The last rector (since 1611) was the well-known Balthazar Pankratius Palyatyn, also a graduate of several foreign universities, the author of polemical works. There was a school in Krylov until 1635 9.

A prominent place among Calvinist educational institutions of Ukraine was occupied by a secondary school in Buchava (Lublin Voivodeship). It was founded in 1560 by the patron of the local church Andriy Myshkovsky. In 1566, the German Anabaptist Petro Pulhranin became the rector of the school, Jan Sokolowski became the proofreader, and a bachelor, a former home teacher in the Martin family from the Senensky family from Lublin, became the teacher (the surname has not been preserved ).

The number of students here reached 80 people – both gentry and burghers. Perhaps its most famous graduate is the Socinian historian Andriy Lyubenetsky. Buchava school was of secondary (four-grade), humanitarian profile. By the decision of Stanislaw Verdensius, a senior in the Ruski district, she began to specialize in training ministers for the Calvinist congregations of Lesser Poland.

To this end, Verdensius wrote a letter to Jean Calvin and asked to send several Swiss professors to Buchava, but since 1569 the institution has come under the influence of anti-Trinitarians10.

A significant role in the educational activities of the Calvinists belonged to the „district“ secondary school in Wlodawa, owned by the Leszczynskis and later by the Buchatskis. Children from noble and bourgeois families, Czech brothers, Lutherans and Orthodox (the synod in Wlodawa in 1630 specifically stated that the school should serve the needs of young people from the „Crown and Lithuania“) studied here.

The charter of the Slutsk school is taken as a model of the program, teachers who came here from Belarus and Galicia were also teachers. (One of the teachers in 1667-1680 was the son of Andriy Dobryansky, Jerome, a pupil of the Slutsk school).

Founded in 1630, the Vladov institution acquired a higher degree a few years later. It also opened a two-year seminary course for the training of theologians and preachers from the local population.