Only the most valuable ones, in particular the Champions and Boims.
Stroinsky. During the restoration, numerous chapels were dismantled, which "outlined" the church during the XV-XVIII centuries. Only the most valuable ones, in particular the Champions and Boims.
The forms of the cathedral are strict and majestic. Elements of Gothic and Baroque architectural styles are harmoniously intertwined in them. The cornerstone of the church was laid in 1349 by King Casimir the Great of Poland. At the end of the XIX century. stained glass windows were made according to the projects of artists J. Matejko, J. Megoffer, and T. Aksentovich, which organically complemented the interior of the church. Now here is the Lviv Cathedral of the Latin Rite.
Conclusion. Location of the Latin Cathedral – Lviv, Cathedral Square. Date of construction: lab report write 1360-1479. Built by: architects P. Stecher, J. Grom, A. Rabish.
A characteristic feature of its planning and spatial structure is the chapel located on both sides of the side; only two symmetrical chapels adjoin the altar of the temple at its beginnings. The chapels were rebuilt several times and later practically lost their original Gothic character. The gothic features of the exterior of the church are hidden by the plastering of the walls from the second half of the XVIII century.
The Latin Cathedral passed its construction path from the Gothic through the Renaissance to the Baroque, and impresses today with its beauty and splendor. In the interior of the cathedral there are many valuable monuments: sculpture and carvings, frescoes on the walls and vaults, stained glass.
The cathedral is three-nave, with an elongated presbytery. The main volume (without the altar and later extensions) is close to a square. Adjacent to the western facade is a tall massive tower; the second, southern, tower is brought only to the level of the roof. The forms of the cathedral are stern, majestic. The interior with four tall slender columns, on which the pointed arches and vaults with Gothic ribs rest, makes a special impression. Nephi of the same height, which is typical for hall-type temples.
History of Ukrainian Culture. Volume 2 (Ukrainian culture of the XIII – first half of the XVII centuries). Encyclopedia of Ukrainian Studies. – K., 1994-1996.
Ukrainian wooden construction. Abstract
The abstract provides information about Ukrainian wooden construction, its origin and the oldest examples
In the whole of Europe, the largest number, and the most valuable examples, of wooden construction have survived in Ukraine. Hence the great interest in Ukrainian wooden construction in the literature of Slavic and other peoples, which arose in the early XIX century. and which in recent years in Western Europe has become particularly intense.
Due to the appropriate climatic and economic conditions, Ukraine has long had large resources of scaffolding – from softwoods to such beautiful hardwoods as maple, sycamore, aspen, ash and finally linden, pear, yew, beech and oak.
That is why Ukrainians were noted for their great skill in wooden construction and have their own ancient culture and original patterns made over many centuries. And when in the buildings intended for housing, creativity was limited in the framework of life and material means, the whole skill of the masters, the whole ingenuity and creative thought were most evident in the buildings of public, defense and religious purpose.
Unfortunately, larger residential buildings have survived in very limited numbers, and castle or defensive buildings in general have completely disappeared, giving way to newer brick and earthen buildings. The structures of the religious cult are relatively better preserved (at least we have some examples even from the XVI-XVII centuries, however, in a somewhat reworked form).
However, some literary and graphic-documentary materials have been preserved, which make it possible to reproduce the older constructive means, types and forms of structures that were produced in much earlier times. In addition, in some of the most deaf and inaccessible places (for example, in the Carpathians) very archaic types of buildings have been preserved, which give a certain idea of the older forms of Ukrainian wooden construction.
Archaeological excavations of Neolithic settlements and houses of old princely times in Ukraine (Kyiv, Belgorodka) claim that even then they used the method of stacking walls by laying beams in the ground position, as we see in all existing wooden buildings in Ukraine. This arrangement of wood in "logs" – in the ground position – is typical of the Slavs, while the Germanic peoples used the method of suspended beams, interconnected so-called. tongues.
How old is the Slavic way and where exactly should we look for its sources – this is evidenced by the writings of the Roman architect of the first century. N. Vitruvius, which describes the dwellings of the settled population of the Black Sea and the carvings on the column of Trajan in Rome in the II century. N. BC, which depicts the structures of the Dacians, who once inhabited our Carpathians. Some fragmentary information about the method and form of overlapping structures, which in wooden architecture greatly affect the overall appearance of the building, give descriptions of Greek, Arabic and other writers.
Historical research, based on the texts of Herodotus, Xenophon and Diodorus, introduces us to the people who lived in the vicinity of Pontus "in houses made as towers, finished with pyramids." The Arab writer Ibn Dast, describing the dwellings of the Slavs of the princely era (IX – X centuries), writes: "…
In the land of the Slavs, the cold is so great that each of them digs a kind of cellar (pit), which is covered with a wooden arched ceiling (roof), which we see in their Christian churches. "In the oldest surviving examples of Ukrainian wooden religious buildings and in old drawings of non-existent buildings we see just a sharp-arched or pyramid-shaped overlap. For the question of castle and defense construction in Ukraine, so we will dwell on them in more detail.
Bell towers in Ukraine are usually placed separately from churches, sometimes even at a considerable distance from them. Only in those areas that were adjacent to the West (Poles, Slovaks, Hungarians) or East (Moscow region), bell towers were built together with the church (Lemkivshchyna, partly Boykivshchyna, Zakarpattia, Slobozhanshchyna). [* It is possible that the combination of the bell tower with the church was delayed in some areas as archaism, a relic of the Gothic era, when this phenomenon was common. ]
Although the oldest surviving examples of wooden bell towers date from the early 16th century. (Potilich), but a number of data indicate their ancient local culture, dating back to the Gothic era. When in the early days of Christianity there were no suitable types of buildings (temples, palaces, houses) that could be adapted and converted for the needs of the new religion, the church bell towers were often provided with defensive and castle towers, and therefore the bell towers were a natural continuation of this kind. construction.
We also know that in Ukraine churches and especially monasteries adapted to defensive purposes not only in the Middle Ages, but also in the XVI – XVIII centuries. Methods of defense were borrowed from Central Europe, where temples in the provinces, if not under the protection of city and other fortifications, were a defensive point.
Wooden temples, often combining a brick defensive fence with arches, were no exception. An example of such a structure is the still existing church in Hervartov near Bardiev in Transcarpathia (according to Myshkovsky’s drawing of the 70s of the last century). In such buildings, surrounded by strong fences and walls with arches, the bell towers played the role of observation and defensive towers. We also know that in Ukraine preserved from the XIV – XVII centuries. brick churches, churches and fortifications of a solid nature, specially adapted for defensive purposes, with embrasures for shooting, loopholes, etc. (Kamyanets, Rohatyn, Sutkivtsi, Ostrog, Lutsk, etc.).
It is said that in ancient times in the lower parts of wooden bell towers were made pantries for weapons and various military equipment (like castle towers). Such weapons – even guns – were handed over to the Austrian government at the churches of Galicia at the beginning of the last century.
Preserving examples of wooden bell towers, especially in Western Ukraine, speaks of the special antiquity of architectural forms – more than the forms of the churches themselves, near which they stand. Built in monumental forms, solid construction, of durable material (mostly oak), they did not require frequent repairs, much less demolition. In addition, the wooden construction of the bell towers allowed for the partial insertion of new material without changing the appearance.
Thus, the architectural forms of the bell towers changed much more slowly than the forms of the churches themselves, retaining their archaic castle and civil character. So, when we take into account the particularly old tradition of building bell towers and the conservatism with which architectural forms changed in wooden construction in general and in bell towers in particular, we conclude that the preserved types of bell towers appeared much earlier than the XVI century.
The construction of bell towers is of two kinds: the older one is chopped from beams or vibleks (beams processed on only three sides), folded in the ground position, and the newer one, which is more common, is a pillar-cross. In both cases, the whole structure stands on rough foundations, and the latter – on the fireplace or on the whole foundation.
The oldest surviving bell towers in Galicia are square in shape with a "fear" or "apron" (protruding roof) in the lower part, strongly sloping walls in the middle, a protruding upper part (floor) and a high pyramidal ceiling, often a broken roof line (Potylich, Stara Sal), Drohobych, Verin, Busovysko, Kurnyky). We see bell towers of the same shape, drawn on engravings of Kyiv in 1638, Kamenets in 1672, Klekhov in 1699, drawings by Bardiev in the 18th century. etc. This form of towers is found in the castle construction of Central Europe, which dates back to the Gothic period, is also known in the cultural wooden construction of the Czech Republic, Silesia, Slovakia XV – XVI centuries.
The strongly hanging upper part of the bell tower and the fear at the ground itself are, in fact, a characteristic feature of the defensive towers. In these protrusions (in the brick towers – the so-called arched frieze) holes (holes) were made, through which stones, sand, hot water, resin, etc. were poured on the advancing enemy. The stone thrown from the hole fell on the sloping roof of fear (in the brick towers – a sloping wall) and by the force of the physical law of the angle of incidence was reflected from the sloping area and far reached the advancing enemy.